Limiting Factor Of Range In Electric Cars

For a long time, car owners have been concerned with how to get the maximum miles out of their vehicles. How much distance can you travel on a gallon of fuel? It’s the same with Electric cars. The range appears to be more crucial than ever. In this post we will know that the range of electric vehicles is limited by various factors.

Limiting Factor Of Range In Electric Car

Limiting Factor Of Range in electric cars are mainly expressed in KWh, this is also equivalent to the actual size of the fuel tank in combustion-powered cars: this determines the energy reserves available to some motor element of the vehicle. The specific level of energy in the battery at the provided moment so defines the remaining range of an electric car.

It’s still crucial to travel as far as possible with a full battery pack, even if new EVs tend to travel more miles than models from a few years ago because of technological advancements.

Similar to internal combustion engine cars, car manufacturers also provide a specific range number. However, remember that they are benchmark values for ideal test settings. Therefore, there are a variety of things that affect an EV’s range.

Nothing would be worse than to be driving home with the heat turned up, the seats heated, the exterior lights on full, the phone charged, and the radio on, and to be perplexed as to why the mileage is dropping off so rapidly, making the home feel further and further away.

Here are the primary characteristics that shorten the range of your electric car to assist in clearing up any confusion.

Primary characteristics that shorten the range of your electric car

What Are The Limiting Factor Of Range In Electric Cars

The temperature impacts the day-to-day range, mostly due to auxiliary heating and cooling. The battery also supplies electricity to the vehicle’s auxiliary systems, most notably: cooling and heating the interior of the car. Battery heating and cooling.

As you can see, the EPA rating for the Model 3 Standard Range Plus with the aero wheels is 240 miles, yet it is currently rated at 250 miles. The range is exactly at the current EPA rating of 65 MPH. However, the range drops to 232 and 213 miles at 70 and 75 MPH, respectively.

When traveling at 75 MPH, anticipate a range loss of roughly 15%. This matches what my 2017 Chevy Volt does. The Volt has a range of 53 miles on a single charge, and since it is a plug-in hybrid, it has a further 350+ miles of gas-powered range. I often only see 44 miles or so at 75 mph.

SpeedSpeed is lethal. Putting the tongue-in-cheek pun aside, an electric car’s efficiency decreases when it is driven at high speeds (65+ MPH). This is because the electric motor has to perform more effort as you drive quicker.
WindThis one is relatively simple. The vehicle encounters more resistance the stronger the headwind, thus the motor has to work more to offset the detrimental effect.
PayloadSimilar to wind, the motor has to work more to counteract the weight of a heavier payload. Again, there is not enough information to define this as a percentage drop in payload weight. However, it is safe to predict that the efficiency of the EV will decrease as you add more passengers and goods to the vehicle.
Tire TractionLess efficiency is the effect of poor tyre traction. Tire quality, tyre pressure, and road conditions are the three elements that affect tyre traction. You can anticipate a little reduction in range if you are operating an EV with tyres that are towards the end of their useful life and if it has recently rained.
Factors affecting your car range

What Is The Application Of HVAC?

Range loss will occur if the HVAC system, or heating in this case, is used during frigid ambient temperatures. Said running the heating system uses energy. Therefore the range is decreased since the battery utilizes energy to heat the car instead of moving the wheels.

The radiator, water pump, thermostat, blower motor, and coolant comprise a basic automotive heating system. An ICE vehicle’s interior is heated naturally as a by-product of the engine. 

That heat has to be produced with an EV (so to speak). Similar to when it is cold outside, energy from the battery must be used, but in this instance, it is for heating the cabin.

According to the study, as mentioned earlier, utilizing heating when the outside temperature is 20 degrees might result in EVs losing as much as 41% of their range. It’s crucial to remember that the decrease in range results from HVAC use and ambient temperature rather than being multiplied by the last cold weather portion.

 Nevertheless, it may still be eye-opening. Both cold temperatures and HVAC use cause ICE vehicles to lose efficiency, though not to the same degree.

The specific range of electric vehicles is become affected by other factors which influence the actual speed at that energy is consumed. Others also are related to how the car is driven, it is the case for factors like average speed, acceleration intensity, road topography, weather, the specific number of passengers, and the weight of baggage carried in a trunk.

What Impact Does Cold Weather Have?

The chilly environment is not conducive to electric vehicles. In particular, EV batteries dislike the cold. This is because they need a neutral temperature to function. 

The battery will need to utilize energy to heat itself in cold environments. An ICE car’s engine block produces a significant quantity of heat (squandered to the environment), which might heat the interior, the fuel, or other components and operations of the vehicle. 

The ICE vehicle naturally warms up for the best performance. The heat required to warm vital components and operations in an EV must be produced utilizing battery power. 

Since the battery needs time to warm up, you may notice a little decrease in range in cold weather (below 50 degrees Fahrenheit). The range loss is particularly pronounced below 30 degrees. According to a study, in temperatures of 20 degrees Fahrenheit, electric automobiles’ range decreases by 12%. Additionally, it is with the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system off.

Knowing the range of an electric car

The distance an electric vehicle (EV) can drive on a single charge is known as its range. Electric vehicle efficiency is measured in miles per gallon of gasoline (MPGe). These Environmental Protection Agency estimates are exactly that—estimates. Your mileage MAY differ, the agency’s website states. While the MPGe figures can be useful, more often than not, the number for drivers is simply the estimated single-charge range. 

How To Increase The Range Of Electric Cars?

Preconditioning your vehicle while still charging is a great idea if you drive in severely hot or cold weather. Turn on the heat or the air conditioning while the vehicle is still plugged in, and let it warm up until you are comfortable. 

Many EVs even have a system that allows the driver to choose the ideal cabin temperature and departure time. By doing this, your car can efficiently maintain the cabin’s temperature rather than changing it while running on battery power alone. 

Brake RegenerationUse the regenerative braking feature on your EV. In an EV, the electric motors act as generators and slow down the car when the accelerator is depressed.
Maintenance of routineThe range of your EV will increase if it is running correctly. An EV requires slightly different maintenance than an ICE-style vehicle does. You should routinely inspect parts for wear, rotate your tyres, and check your fluid levels every 7,500 miles.
Increase your car range

 You will benefit from increased real-world range if you set your EV to its maximum regen setting.

As with any vehicle, ensuring that the drivetrain and tires are in good working order will increase efficiency. Furthermore, as your battery ages, reviving dead cells to retain optimum capacity will keep your range close to its initial value.

“  As, based on these recent statistics, even the 2010 Nissan LEAF would surpass the daily commuting needs of most.”


What Factors Into An Electric Vehicle’s Range?

The lithium-ion battery’s capacity, or the quantity of electricity it can store, determines an electric vehicle’s range in the first place. It is equivalent to the size of the fuel tank in combustion-powered vehicles when expressed in kWh (kilowatt hours).

This establishes the energy reserves available to the motor and other components of the vehicle. The amount of energy consequently determines the remaining range of the electric car in the battery at any particular time.

Other elements that affect the rate at which energy is spent also have an impact on the range of electric vehicles. Some are inherent to the vehicle, such as its energy effectiveness or motor power.

 Some parameters, including average speed, acceleration force, road terrain, weather, the number of passengers, and the weight of the cargo in the trunk, are directly related to how the automobile is driven.

Supply Problem Of Evs

A Distinction Between The Theoretical And Practical Range

The range between two drivers of the same vehicle will sometimes be different. So that the process of purchasing or testing an electric automobile is maintained, test methods have been devised.

Based on common autonomy tests, prospective purchasers must be able to evaluate and contrast the variety of different vehicles on the market. As a result, the auto industry and several economic regulation agencies have created protocols to test various vehicles under defined conditions that aim to resemble real-life usage as possible closely.

The Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure, or WLTP, is the most recent iteration of this technique. It seeks to deliver values comparable to those that a driver could encounter in their daily life, with a cycle that combines travel on urban, suburban, and motorways.

Choosing a Vehicle that Meets Your Needs

Consider the numerous elements that affect range before making an EV purchase. Do you travel in chilly weather? Do you regularly track your highway miles? At work, will you have dependable access to a power source? For instance, getting an EV with a range surpassing your daily mileage is a wonderful idea if you know you will drive your EV in frigid weather without access to charging throughout the day. 


There is no doubt that range will continue to be the main factor for both existing and potential EV owners, but automakers are working to make their products more efficient. Due to innovations, vehicles can now make the most of their climate controls and reduce range loss from high temperatures. Concerns about range are being alleviated by an increase in charging stations, such as those offered by EV Connect. Also, EV batteries are getting stronger while deteriorating less, so your EV will continue to go far for many years.


What elements affect an electric vehicle’s range? 

Your results may vary depending on the battery’s level of charge and peak charging periods. Actual driving range varies depending on factors like the outside environment, how the car is used, how it is maintained, how old the lithium-ion batteries are, and how well it is maintained.

What decreases the actual range of the electric vehicle?

Two major components that sap your electric car’s battery are heating and air conditioning. The range is reduced by around 17% when the heat is on full blast. Battery drain from air conditioning is 11% faster than when it is not used.

What restricts the electric car’s range?

The lithium-ion battery’s capacity, or the quantity of electricity it can store, determines an electric vehicle’s range in the first place

How precise is the range of an electric car?

A decent (but cautious) rule of thumb would be to suggest that the real-world range may be up to, or approximately 20% off, the WLTP figure in typical conditions and possibly 10–20% more if several passengers or a heavy load are added, and if driving in really cold temperatures.

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Bharat Suthar

I am principal creator of I like riding Electric Car, UTV in mountains and Terrain, Also I try to share all the real life experience here in the site.I am really dedicated to write about my experience. I love doing all the outdoor activity including riding electric car, dirt biking and hiking.

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